Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1 __ those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3 __ the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection.__4__ , a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5 __ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family.
The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__ by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, __9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride’s and groom’s wrists, and __10__ a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the __11__ . Newlyseds traditionally move in with the wife’s parents and may __12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby.
Divorce is legal and easy to __14__ ,but not common. Divoreced persons are __15__with some disapproval. Each spouse retains __16__ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__ up: The divorced male doesn’t have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__ the woman must wait ten months.
1. [A] by way of [B] on behalf of [C] as well as [D] with regard to
[標準答案] [C] as well as
[選項分析] 因為考查邏輯關系，所以需要我們先對填空前后的原文信息做定位分析：空格處身處大環境not only…but also之中，這是一個明顯的并列關系，表示“不僅……而且……”，該空后面的those指代前文出現的“parents and friends”，顯然“the young man”與“the young woman”為并列關系，表示“與他本人以及伴侶的父母朋友相關”，所以答案只能是[C]項as well as 也，又。[A]項by way of 通過，[D]項with regard to 關于，[B]項on behalf of 代表。
2. [A] adapt to [B] provide for [C] compete with [D] decide on
[標準答案] [D] decide on
[選項分析] 根據該句的主語a young man與賓語a likely spouse的關系，答案只能是[D]項decide on“決定”，表示自己決定自己的配偶。[B]項provide for為……提供準備……，provide為及物動詞，直接跟賓語，不需要加介詞；[C]項compete with“與……競爭”，[A]項adapt to“適用”。
3. [A] close [B] remew [C] arrange [D] postpone
[標準答案] [C] arrange
[選項分析] 該句意思為：他可以自己選擇自己中意的伴侶并讓父母_____婚姻談判。四個選項中，[A]項close 關閉；[B]項renew 更新，恢復；[D]項postpone 推遲；這三項語義不正確，只有[C]項arrange“安排”符合語境。
4. [A] Above all [B] In theory [C] In time [D] For example
[標準答案] [B] In theory
[選項分析] 邏輯判斷題主要是看前后兩句的含義，前面說“他可以自己選擇自己中意的伴侶并讓父母安排婚姻談判，或者完全由父母選擇對象，不給孩子選擇的機會。”空格后面說“女方可以否決她父母所選擇的對象。”這兩句之間顯然是相反的關系，且有一個may，更證明[B]項In theory“理論上說”的正確性，而其他選項[A]項Above all最重要的是，[C]項In time 準時，[D]項For example舉例，均不符合題意。
5. [A] Although [B] Lest [C] After [D] Unless
[標準答案] [C] After
[選項分析] 根據下文“______a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other…”可知，只有對象選擇好后，父母才會去調查對方，顯然表達的是時間先后順序，所以只有after才對。其他選項[A]項Although 盡管， [B]項Lest 以免，唯恐，[D]Unless 除非，否則都不符合題意。
6. [A] into [B] within [C] from [D] through
[標準答案] [A] into
[選項分析] 這里主要是看marry與相關介詞的固定搭配及句意理解。這里marry into就是指“通過婚姻得到[成為]……的一員”，而其他選項均沒有這層含義。
7. [A] since [B] or [C] but [D] so
[標準答案] [C] but
[選項分析] 根據上文“以前婚禮會持續三天”，出處句子意為“到了20世紀80年代，婚禮只持續一天半”，顯然與前文發生轉變，為對比關系，因此選擇[C]項but 但是。
8. [A] copy [B] test [C] recite [D] create
[標準答案] [C] recite
[選項分析] 空格處需要填一個動詞，和后面的prayers of blessing所搭配，[C]項recite 有“吟誦、朗誦”的意思，與所給短語搭配最為合理，譯為“吟誦祝福的祈禱文”。
9. [A] folding [B] piling [C] wrapping [D] tying
[標準答案] [D] tying
[選項分析] 本題需要根據上下文語義分析，空格處需要搭配后文“棉線”，縱觀四個選項[A]項 折疊，[B]項 堆積，[C]項 包裹，[D]項 系上，根據后文的“around the bride’s and groom’s wrists 在新郎和新娘的腰間”，只有[D]項“將在圣水中浸過的棉線系在新郎和新娘的腰間”符合句意。
10. [A] passing [B] lighting [C] hiding [D] serving
[標準答案] [A] passing
[選項分析] 原文空格需要填寫一個動詞與后文“around a circle”來搭配，譯為“將蠟燭傳一圈”，故[A]項“傳遞”為正確選項。[B]項 點亮，[C]項 隱藏，[D]項 服務。
11. [A] meeting [B] collection [C] association [D] union
[標準答案] [D] union
[選項分析] 本句語義為“將蠟燭繞著幸福完婚和受人尊敬的夫妻傳遞一圈來祝福 ”，[D]項 結合，引申為“婚姻”之意；根據語境，[D]項正確。
12. [A] grow [B] part [C] deal [D] live
[標準答案] [D] live
[選項分析] 本題比較簡單。根據語義“根據傳統，新婚夫婦要搬到妻子父母家，與父母____一年”，[D]項“生活”為最佳答案。[C]項 交易，[B]項 分開，[A]項 成長。
13. [A] whereas [B] until [C] if [D] for
[標準答案] [B] until
[選項分析] 本句意為“_____他們在附近建造一棟新房子”，[A]項 然而，[B]項 直到，[D]項因為，[C]項 如果，結合前文“新婚夫婦根據傳統要和女方家人生活一年”，前后存在一定的時間關系，[B]項“直到”最符合原文語境，搭配最為合理。
14. [A] avoid [B] follow [C] challenge [D] obtain
[標準答案] [D] obtain
[選項分析] Divorce is legal and relatively easy to __14__, but not common. 該句句意為“離婚是合法的，且相對容易____。”[A]項avoid避免，[B]項follow跟隨，[C]項challenge挑戰，質疑，[D]項obtain獲得，實現。根據關鍵詞“legal”可知這里表達的是正面的意思，再根據句意選擇[D]項。
15. [A] isolated [B] persuaded [C] viewed [D] exposed
[標準答案] [C] viewed
[選項分析] Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. 離婚的人 一些不認可。本段第一句提到“離婚是合法的且相對容易得到批準，但是不常見。”這句其實是在說明離婚并不常見的原因，[A]項isolated孤立，[B]項persuaded勸說，[C]項viewed看待，[D]項exposed接觸，受到……的影響，[C]項最符合句意。
16. [A] whereever [B] whatever [C] whenever [D] however
[標準答案] [B] whatever
[選項分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage. 17小題四個選項都是動詞，所以該句意思為：夫婦雙方保有財產，這個財產是他或她進婚姻的。結合[A]項 whereever“無論何地；任何（地方）=any place where(定從)”；[B]項 whatever“無論什么；任何（東西）=anything that/any+N that”；[C]項 whenever無論何時；任何時間=any time when；[D]項 however無論如何；無論多么。根據語義，這里應該不是讓步的關系，而且填的這個詞還要能修飾property。因此，選擇[B]項，等于retains any property that he or she……。
17. [A] changed [B] brought [C] shaped [D] pushed
[標準答案] [B] brought
[選項分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage，結合[A]項 changed“改變”，[B]項 brought “帶來”，[C]項 shaped“形成”，[D]項 pushed“推，逼迫”。結合語境只有[B]項符合句意，意為“把財產帶入婚姻”。
18. [A] invested [B] divided [C] donated [D] withdrawn
[標準答案] [B] divided
[選項分析] ...and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. 結合[A]項invested投資；[B]項divided分配；分開；[C]項donated 捐贈；[D]項withdrawn撤出，提取。根據語義應該是共同財產被（夫妻雙方）平分，因此選擇[B]項。
19. [A] warms [B] clears [C] shows [D] breaks
[標準答案] [C] shows
[選項分析] Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. 該句語義為離過婚的人或許會再婚，但是性別偏見 。[A]項warm up加熱，熱身；[B]項clear up（天氣）變晴，收拾，消除；[C]項show up顯現；[D]項break up分裂，分開；根據句意，選擇[C]項。
20. [A] while [B] so that [C] once [D] in that
[標準答案] [A] while
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.
The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.
Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death - as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.
The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.
The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep — and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.
The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.
In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: “We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.’ The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week, which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and-shame method of compliance.
Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.
21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?
[A] Physical beauty would be redefined.
[B] New runways would be constructed.
[C] Websites about dieting would thrive.
[D] The fashion industry would decline.
【答案】 [A] Physical beauty would be redefined
【解析】 推斷題。根據France定位到文章前兩段，第一段講法國決定時裝業失去了定義（define）形體美（physical beauty）的絕對權力。法國的立法者通過了一項法律，雇用超瘦的模特屬于犯罪，議會也禁止網站通過推崇極端節食“鼓動過度瘦弱”。第二段第二句提到“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. 他們建議美麗不應該以傷害身體健康為代價的外表來界定。”由此可知，法國通過立法手段來改變法國時裝業模特超瘦的現狀，即[A]項的“形體美將會被重新定義”，是對原文內容的合理推斷。[B]項“將會建造新的舞臺”，[C]項“有關節食的網站將會興起”，[D]項“時裝業將會衰退”，均不能從文中推測出來，屬于“無中生有”。
22. The phrase “impinging on” (Line 2, Para 2) is closest in meaning to____
[A] heightening the value of.
[B] indicating the state of.
[C] losing faith in.
[D] doing harm to.
【答案】 [D] doing harm to
【解析】猜詞題。定位到第二段第二句“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. 他們建議美麗不應該以 身體健康為代價的外表來界定。”impinging on后面的賓語為“health”，即對健康的某種影響。根據第二段第三句“對超瘦模特的禁令似乎不僅僅是在防止模特挨餓致死——正如曾有人這么做過的”，可見法國目前的對美麗的定義導致了有人為了保持身材，挨餓致死，因此推測出這一短語在這里的意思為“侵犯，傷害”，[D]項“對……有害”正確。[A]項“增強了……的價值”，[B]項“反映了……的狀態”，[C]項“對……失去信心”均不符合句意。
23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?
[A] The French measures have already failed.
[B] New standards are being set in Denmark.
[C] Model are no longer under peer pressure.
[D] Its inherent problems are getting worse.
【答案】 [B] New Standards are being set in Denmark
【解析】細節題。根據第五段第二句話“In Denmark,...it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion... 在丹麥，它正嘗試為模特設定自愿的標準……”，可知[B]項“在丹麥新的標準正在被設定”是對原文的同義替換。[A]項“法國的措施失敗了”；[C]項“不再有來自同行執法的壓力”，文章第五段第二句后半句提到“images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement”，屬于“正反混淆”；[D]項“它固有的問題變得更嚴重了”，文中第五段只提及時裝業有固有的問題，并未提及“變得更嚴重”，屬于“無中生有”。
24. A designer is most likely to be rejected by CFW for ____
[A] setting a high age threshold for models.
[B] caring too much about models’ character.
[C] showing little concern for health factors.
[D] pursuing perfect physical conditions.
【答案】 [C] showing little concern for health factors
25. Which of the following may be the best title of the text?
[A] The Great Threats to the Fashion Industry
[B] Just Another Round of Struggle for Beauty
[C] A Dilemma for the Starving Models in France
[D] A Challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals
【答案】 [D] A challenge to the Fashion Industry’s Body Ideals
For the first time in history, more people live in towns than in the county. In Britain this has had a curious result. While polls show Britons rate “the countryside” alongside the royal firmly, Shakespeare and the National Health Service (NHS) as what makes them proudest of their country, this has limited political support.
A century ago Octavia Hill launched the National Trust not to rescue stylish houses but to save “the beauty of natural places for everyone forever.” It was specifically to provide city dwellers with spaces for leisure where they could experience “a refreshing air.” Hill’s pressure later led to the creation of national parks and green belts. They don’t make countryside any more, and every year concrete consumes more of it. It needs constant guardianship.
At the next election none of the big parties seem likely to endorse this sentiment. The conservatives’ planning reform explicitly gives rural development priori over conservation, even authorizing “off-plan” building where local people might object. The concept of sustainable development has been defined as profitable. Labour likewise wants to discontinue local planning where councils oppose development. The Liberal Democrats are silent. Only Ukip, sensing its chance, has sided with those pleading for a more considered approach to using green land. Its Campaign to Protect Rural England struck terror into many local Conservative parties.
The sensible place to build new houses, factories and offices is where people are.in cities and towns where infrastructure is in place. The London agents Stirling Ackroyd recently identified enough sites for half a million houses in the London area alone, no intrusion on green belt. What is true of London is even truer of the provinces.
The idea that “housing crisis” equals “concreted meadows” is pure lobby talk. The issue is not the need for more house but, as always, where to put them. Under lobby pressure, George Osborne favours rural new-build against urban renovation and renewal. He favours out-of-town shopping sites against. high streets. This is not a free market but a biased one. Rural towns and villages have growl and will always grow. They do so best where building sticks to their edges and respects their character. We do not ruin urban conservation areas. Why ruin rural ones?
Development should be planned .not let rip. After the Netherlands, Britain is Europe’s most crowded country. Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living. there is no doubt of the alternative - the corrupted landscapes of southern Portugal Spain or Ireland avoiding this rather than promoting it should unite left and right of the political spectrum.
26. Britain’s public sentiment about the countryside
[A] didn’t start till the Shakespearean age.
[B] has brought much benefit to the NHS.
[C] is fully backed by the royal family.
[D] is not well reflected in politics.
【答案】 [D] is not well reflected in politics
【解析】細節題。根據題干回到原文精確定位到首段最后一句：“然而民意調查顯示英國人把鄉村與皇室家族、莎士比亞和國家醫療服務體系一起視為使他們為自己國家感到最自豪的事物，這擁有有限的政治支持”，該句中的polls“民意調查“對應題干中的public sentiment，“this has limited political support”對應[D]項“is not well reflected in politics”，意為“在政治上沒有得到很好的反響”，是對原文的同義替換。[B]項“給國家醫療服務體系帶了了很多益處”，[A]項“直到莎士比亞時期才開始”，[C]項“得到了皇室家族的全力支持”，文章均未提及，屬于“無中生有”。
27. According to Paragraph 2, the achievements of the National Trust are now being
[A] gradually destroyed.
[B] effectively reinforced..
[C] properly protected.
[D] largely overshadowed.
【答案】 [D] largely overshadowed
【解析】細節題。根據題干中的the National Trust定位到第二段首句。第二段首句提到這一項目的目的是為每個人永久保存自然地區的美麗。再根據第二段的第三句“Hill的項目創造出國家公園和綠地。他們不再制造鄉村了，而且每年鋼筋混凝土消耗的鄉村越來越多。鄉村需要持久的保護”?？芍敃r的項目取得的成就已經不再發揮影響，[D]項“被大大奪去了光輝（即失去了影響力）”為正確選項。[A]項“被漸漸破壞”，[B]項“被有效地加強了”，[C]項“被合理地保護”，均不符合題意。
28. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 3?
[A] Labour is under attack for opposing development
[B] The Conservatives may abandon “off-plan” building.
[C] The Liberal Democrats are losing political influence.
[D] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation.
【答案】 [D] Ukip may gain from its support for rural conservation
29. The author holds that George Osborne’s preference
[A] reveals a strong prejudice against urban areas.
[B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas.
[C] stresses the necessity of easing the housing crisis.
[D] highlights his firm stand i against lobby Pressure.
【答案】[B] shows his disregard for the character of rural areas
【解析】 細節題。根據關鍵詞George Osborne定位至第五段，第五段第二句提到Osborne支持鄉村新建住宅反對城市改造和重建，支持郊區購物場所反對城市商業街。由此可知Osborne的是支持城市保護，反對鄉村保護。接下來幾句作者表達了自己的觀點：這不是一個自由的市場而是一個有偏見的市場。接著提到：鄉村的小鎮和農村已經得到發展并將繼續發展，它們在建筑堅持界線和尊重它們的特點方面做的非常好，我們沒有破壞城市受保護的區域，為什么要破壞鄉村的呢？可見Osborne的觀點只強調城市，忽視了鄉村，[B]項“表明他對鄉村區域特色的忽視”符合文意，為正確選項。[A]項“揭示出對城市區域的強烈偏見”，Osborne重視城市反對鄉村，與文意相悖；[C]項“強調了緩解住房壓力的必要性”，[D]項“突出了他反對游說團壓力的堅定立場”，文中并未提及，屬于“無中生有”。
30. In the last paragraph, the author shows his appreciation of
[A] the size of population in Britain.
[B] the enviable urban lifestyle in Britain.
[C] the town-and-country planning in Britain.
[D]the political life in today’s Britain.
【答案】 [C] the town-and-country planning in Britain
【解析】 細節題。根據題干定位到最后一段第二句：“Half a century of town and country planning has enabled it to retain an enviable rural coherence, while still permitting low-density urban living.”，[C]項的“the town-and-country planning in Britain”是對原文的同義替換，為正確選項。[A]項“英國人口的規模”，[B]項“英國令人羨慕的都市生活方式”，[D]項“當今英國的政治生活”，均不符合題意。
“There is one and only one social responsibility of businesses,” wrote Milton Friedman, a Nobel prize-winning economist, “That is, to use its resources and engage in activities designed to increase its profits.” But even if you accept Firedman’s premise and regard corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies as a waste of shareholders’ money, things may not be absolutely clear-cut. New research suggests that CSR may create monetary value for companies-at least when they are prosecuted for corruption.
The largest firms in America and Britain together spend more than $ 15 billion a year on CSR, according to an estimate by EPG, a consulting firm. This could add value to their businesses in three ways. First, consumers may take CSR spending as a “signal” that a company’s products are of high quality. Second, customers may be willing to buy a company’s products as an indirect way to donate to the good causes it helps. And third, through a more diffuse “halo effect,” whereby its good deeds earn it greater consideration from consumers and others.
Previous studies on CSR have had trouble differentiating these effects because consumers can be affected by all three. A recent study attempts to separate them by looking at bribery prosecutions under America’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It argues that since prosecutors do not consume a company’s products as part of their investigations, they could be influenced only by the halo effect.
The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties. Their analysis ruled out the possibility that it was firms’ political influence, rather than their CSR stand, that accounted for the leniency: Companies that contributed more to political campaigns did not receive lower fines.
In all, the study concludes that whereas prosecutors should only evaluate a case based on its merits, they do seem to be influenced by a company’s record in CSR. “We estimate that either eliminating a substantial labour-rights concern, such as child labour or increasing corpora giving by about 20% results in fines that generally are 40% lower than the typical punishment for briding foreign officials,” says one researcher.
Researchers admit that their study does not answer the question of how much businesses ought to spend on CSR. Nor does it reveal how much companies are banking on the halo effect rather than the other possible benefits, when they decide their do-gooding policies. But at least they have demonstrated that when companies get into trouble with the law, evidence of good character can win them a less costly punishment.
31. The author views Milton Friedman’s statement about CSR with
【解析】觀點態度題。題干問的是作者對有關CSR方面Milton Friedman的說法是什么態度。根據信號詞Milton Friedman這個人定位到首段。注意題干問的是作者的看法，因此定位到第二句but轉折處。But后句子的主干為：things may not be absolutely clear-cut，可見作者對Milton Friedman所說的內容并不完全贊同，故選擇答案[B]項懷疑。[A]項容忍，[C]項不確定，[D]項贊同，這三項均不是作者的態度，故排除。
32. According to Paragraph 2, CSR helps a company by
[A] winning trust from consumers.
[B] guarding it against malpractices.
[C] protecting it from being defamed.
[D] raising the quality of its products.
【解析】細節題。根據題干中的出處提示“Paragraph 2”定位到第二段第二句：This could add value to their businesses in three ways. This指的是CSR，根據接下來講到的三點：第一點是，消費者認為這樣的公司產品質量比較高；第二點是，顧客更愿意購買這樣公司的產品；第三點是，通過一個更為廣泛的“暈輪效應”，消費者會更多地考慮這樣的公司的產品?？芍?，有CSR支出的公司會吸引更多的消費者，[A]項“贏得消費者的信任”，是對整個三點的總結，故為正確答案。[B]項 防止公司里的玩忽職守，[C]項 保護公司免受毀謗，[D]項 提升公司產品的質量，均在原文中未提及，故排除。
33. The expression “more lenient’ (Line 2, Para. 4) is closest in meaning to
[A] more effective
[B] less controversial
[C] less severe
[D] more lasting
【解析】猜詞題。根據題干中的出處提示“line 2, para. 4”及信號詞“more lenient”定位到原文中的第四段第一句：The study found that...penalties。明顯此句中more lenient 修飾 penalties(懲罰) ，要想推測出more lenient的含義，需要知道被起訴的公司中，那些有著全面的CSR項目的公司和penalties 之間的聯系。本項在第五段的最后一句最容易被看出來，第五段最后一句提到那些在CSR有較大投資的公司，當被起訴有賄賂行為時，所受到的罰金要比通常的罰金低40%左右，可知這樣的公司會受到較輕的懲罰，故more lenient是較輕，即較不嚴重的意思，故選[C]項。[A]項 更有效的，[B]項 較少有爭議的，[D]項 更持久的，這三項均不是more lenient的意思，故排除。
34. When prosecutors evaluate a case, a company’s CSR record
[A] has an impact on their decision.
[B] comes across as reliable evidence.
[C] increases the chance of being penalized.
[D] constitutes part of the investigation.
【解析】細節題。題干問的是 CSR record 與 prosecutors evaluate a case 的關系，根據題干中的信號詞prosecutors evaluate a case可回文中定位到第五段第一句：In all...in CSR。這里的be influenced與[A]項 has an impact 對應，即一個公司的CSR會影響檢察官對其案件的評估，故選[A]項。[B]項被檢察官認為是可靠的證據，[C]項 增加了被懲罰的機會，[D]項 構成了調查的一部分，這三項均在原文中沒有提及，故排除。
35. Which of the following is true of CSR, according to the last paragraph?
[A] Its negative effects on businesses are often overlooked.
[B] The necessary amount of companies’ spending on it is unknown.
[C] Companies’ financial capacity for it has been overestimated.
[D] It has brought much benefit to the banking industry.
【解析】判斷題題干問的是根據最后一段，有關CSR的論述哪個是對的。定位到原文最后一段，根據其內容可知“研究人員承認到其研究沒有回答如下問題：公司應該在CSR方面花費多少錢”。[B]項的意思是“公司在CSR方面的花費是未知的”，屬于原文的同義替換，故正確。[A]項 CSR對公司的負面影響經常被忽視，[C]項 公司對CSR的經濟承擔力被過高估計了，[D]項 CSR給銀行業帶來了很多好處，這三項在文中均為提及，故排除。
There will eventually come a day when The New York Times ceases to publish stories on newsprint. Exactly when that day will be is a matter of debate. “Sometime in the future,” the paper’s publisher said back in 2010.
Nostalgia for ink on paper and the rustle of pages aside, there’s plenty of incentive to ditch print. The infrastructure required to make a physical newspaper-printing presses, delivery trucks — isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. Readers are migrating away from print anyway. And though print and sales still dwarf their online and mobile counterparts, revenue from print is still declining.
Overhead may be high and circulation lower, but risking to eliminate its print edition would be a mistake, says BuzzFeed CEO Jonah Pere.
Peretti says the Times shouldn’t waste time getting out of the print business, but only if they go about do, it the right way. “Figuring out a way to accelerate that transition would make sense for them,” he said, “but if you discontinue it, you’re going to have your most loyal customers really upset with you.”
Sometimes that’s worth making a change anyway. Peretti gives the example of Netflix discontinuing its DVD-mailing service to focus on streaming. “It was seen as a blunder,” he said. The move turned out to be foresighted. And if Peretti were in charge at the Times? “I wouldn’t pick a year to end print,” he said. “I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.”
The most loyal customers would still get the product they favor, the idea goes, and they’d feel like they were helping sustain the quality of something they believe in. “So if you are overpaying for print, you could feel like you were helping,” Peretti said, “Then increase it at a higher rate each year and essentially try to generate additional revenue.” In other words, if you’re going to make a print product, make it for the people who are already obsessed with it, Which may be what the Times is doing already. Getting the print edition seven days a week costs nearly $500 a year — more than twice as much as a digital-only subscription.
“It’s a really hard thing to do and it’s a tremendous luxury that BuzzFeed doesn’t have a legacy business,” Peretti remarked. “But we’re going to have questions like that where we have things we’re doing that don’t make sense when the market changes and the world changes. In those situations, it’s better to be more aggressive than less aggressive.”
36. The New York Times is considering ending it’s print edition partly due to
[A] the pressure form its investors
[B] the complaints from its readers
[C] the high cost of operation
[D] the increasing online ad sales.
【解析】細節題。題干問的是《紐約時報》考慮停止紙質版新聞印刷出版的原因是什么。文章首段首句即是此內容的同義表達，第二段解釋具體原因，第二句：The infrastructure...isn’t just expensive; it’s excessive at a time when online-only competitors don’t have the same set of financial constraints. 意思是紙質印刷所要求的基礎設施不僅僅貴而且多余，因為他們的網絡競爭對手沒有這樣的經濟上的限制。[C]項“運行的高成本”是對原文內容的總結，故正確。[A]項 來自于投資者的壓力，[B]項 來自于讀者的投訴，[D]項 網絡廣告銷售的增長，這三項在文中均未提及，故排除。
37.Peretti suggests that.in face of the present situation, the Times should
[A] make strategic adjustments
[B] end the print edition for good
[C] seek new sources of readership
[D] aim for efficient management
【解析】細節題。題干問的是：面對目前的形勢，Peretti建議《紐約時報》怎么做。根據信號詞Peretti回原文中定位至第四段，首句內容是Peretti說《紐約時報》不該浪費時間去想著如何停止紙質印刷，而應該找到一種正確的方法去解決這件事。接著第二句Peretti說找到一種方式來促進這種轉變會對他們來說有用處?？芍狿eretti認為《紐約時報》應當做出一些改變而非停止紙質版的發行，[A]項“做出策略上的調整”是對原文的同義轉述，故正確。[B]項 永遠結束紙質版，與原文意思相反，故排除；[C]項 尋求新的讀者資源，[D]項 以高效的管理為目標，在原文中未提及，故排除。
38.It can be inferred front Paragraphs 5 and 6 that a “legacy product”
[A] will have the cost of printing reduced.
[B] is meant for the most loyal customers.
[C] helps restore the glory of former times.
[D] expands the popularity of the paper.
【解析】題干意思為：從第五、六段可以推斷出“傳承產品” 。根據信號詞legacy product定位到第五段最后一句：I would raise prices and make it into more of a legacy product.不僅要提高價格還要將它變為一種遺留品。單單這一句不足以做出選擇，需要繼續往下看在第六段中有沒有對于這個詞的解釋。第六段開頭提到了他認為大部分忠實的消費者依舊會堅持購買他們喜歡的產品，而且他們會認為是在幫助維持他們所信任的產品的質量?？梢奝eretti認為忠實的購買者不會有改變，如果可以每年增加一些比例，那么依舊是可以創收的。緊接著出現了in other worlds(換句話說)，如果我們要做這些print product(印刷產品)，那就為那些已經癡迷于他們的人而做吧。[B]項“是為多數忠實的顧客設計的”，是對原文內容的同義替換，為正確答案。[A]項 會降低印刷成本，[C]項 重建以往的榮耀，[D]項 擴大報紙的受歡迎程度，這三項均在文中未提及，故排除。
39. Peretti believes that in a changing world,
[A] traditional luxuries can stay unaffected.
[B] aggressiveness better meets challenges.
[C] cautiousness facilitates problem-solving.
[D] legacy businesses are becoming outdated.
【解析】題干以為：Peretti認為，在一個變化的世界里 。根據信號詞Peretti和changing world可回文中定位到文章最后一段，由最后一段可知Peretti認為在市場在變化、世界在變化的情況中，更有進取心是更好的。[B]項“進取精神可以更好地迎接挑戰”，本項是對原文的同義轉述，故正確。[A]項 傳統的奢侈品不會受到影響，在文中未提及，故排除；[C]項 謹慎小心促進問題的解決，與原文意思相反，故排除；[D]項 傳統產業正在變得過時，在文中未提及，故排除。
40 . Which of the following would be the best title of the text
[A] Make Your Print Newspaper a Luxury Good
[B] Keep Your Newspaper Forever in Fashion
[C] Cherish the Newspaper Still in Your Hand
[D] Shift to Online Newspapers All at Once
【解析】全文由《紐約時報》紙質版終有一天會面臨倒閉的危機引出話題，重點闡述Peretti對此問題的看法：《紐約時報》紙質版應該考慮轉型——為大部分忠實的顧客提供遺留品。后面接著闡述了如何將《紐約時報》做成這種專為忠實的顧客制作的高價遺留品。[A]項“將你的印刷報紙做成一個奢侈品”，a luxury good是對原文中提到的高價“legacy product”的同義轉述，故正確。B.始終保持你的報紙時尚前沿，[C]項 珍惜你手中仍然擁有的報紙，[D]項 立刻轉向網絡在線報紙，均不是本文要的主旨，故排除。
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each of the numbered paragraphs(41-45). There are two extra subheadings. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.
[A] Create a new image of yourself
[B] Decide if the time is right
[C] Have confidence in yourself
[D] Understand the context
[E] Work with professionals
[F] Know your goals
[G] Make it efficient
No matter how formal or informal the work environment, the way you present yourself has an impact. This is especially true in fast impressions. According to research from Princeton University, people assess your competence, trustworthiness, and likeability in just a tenth of a second, solely based on the way you look.
The difference between today’s workplace and the “dress for success” era is that the range of options is so much broader. Norms have evolved and fragmented. In some settings, red sneakers or dress T-shirts can convey status; in others not so much. Plus, whatever image we present is magnified by social-media services like LinkedIn. Chances are, your headshots are seen much more often now than a decade or two ago. Millennials, it seems , face the paradox of being the least formal generation yet the most conscious of style and personal branding. It can be confusing.
So how do we navigate this? How do we know when to invest in an upgrade? And what’s the best way to pull off one that enhances our goals? Here are some tips:
As an executive coach, I’ve seen image upgrades be particularly helpful during transitions-when looking for a new job, stepping into a new or more public role, or changing work environments. If you’re in a period of change or just feeling stuck and in a rut, now may be a good time. If you’re not sure, ask for honest feedback from trusted friends, colleagues and professionals. Look for cues about how others perceive you. Maybe there’s no need for an upgrade and that’s OK.
Get clear on what impact you’re hoping to have. Are you looking to refresh your image or pivot it? For one person, the goal may be to be taken more seriously and enhance their professional image. For another, it may be to be perceived as more approachable, or more modern and stylish. For someone moving from finance to advertising, maybe they want to look more “SoHo.”(It’s OK to use characterizations like that.)
Look at your work environment like an anthropologist. What are the norms of your environment? What conveys status? Who are your most important audiences? How do the people you respect and look up to present themselves? The better you understand te cultural context, the more control you can have over your impact.
Enlist the support of professionals and share with them your goals and context. Hire a personal stylist, or use the free styling service of a store like. Crew. Try a hair stylist instead of a barber. Work with a professional photographer instead of your spouse or friend. It’s not as expensive as you might think.
The point of a style upgrade isn’t to become more vain or to spend more time excessing over what to wear. Instead, use it as an opportunity to reduce decision fatigue. Pick a standard work uniform or a few go-to options. Buy all your clothes …. once with a stylist instead of shopping alone, one article of clothing at a time.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese .You translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEKT. (10 points)
Mental health is our birthright. (46) We don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy ;it it built into us that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone. Mental health can’t be learned, only reawakened. It is like the immune system of the body, which under stress or through lack of nutrition or exercise can be weakened, but which never leaves us. When we don't understand the value of mental health and we don't know how to gain access to it, mental health will remain hidden from us. (47) Our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.
Mental health is the seed that contains self-esteem - confidence in ourselves and an ability to trust in our common sense. It allows us to have perspective on our lives - the ability to not take ourselves too seriously, to laugh at ourselves, to see the bigger picture, and to see that things will work out. It’s a form of innate or unlearned optimism. (48) Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles ,with kindness if they are in pain,and with unconditional love no matter who they are. Mental health is the source of creativity for soving problems, resolving conflict, making our surroundings more beautiful,managing our home life, or coming up with a creative business idea or invention to make our lives easier. It gives us patience for ourselves and toward others as well as patience while driving,catching a fish,working on our car,or raising a child. It allows us to see the beauty that surrounds us each moment in nature,in culture,in the flow of our daily lives.
(49) Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives,it is perfectly ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions.It has been available even in the most mundane of life situations to show you right from wrong,good from bad,friend from foe.Mental health has commonly been called conscience,instinct,wisdom,common sense,or the inner voice.We think of it simply as a healthy and helpful flow of intelligent thought .(50) As you will come to see ,knowing that mental heath is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.
46. We don’t have to learn how to be mentally healthy; it is built into us in the same way that our bodies know how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone.
【句子結構】此句中分號連接了兩個并列句。第一個句子中how to be mentally healthy作learn的賓語。第二個句子主干是it is built into us，in the same way引導狀語從句說明built into us的方式，that引導定語從句修飾way，其中定語從句中how to heal a cut or mend a broken bone作know的賓語。
47. Our mental health doesn’t really go anywhere; like the sun behind a cloud, it can be temporarily hidden from view, but it is fully capable of being restored in an instant.
【句子結構】此句中分號連接了兩個并列句。第一個句子是簡單句，第二個句子中，like the sun behind a cloud是狀語，but連接兩個轉折關系的并列分句，在翻譯時要注意be hidden from和be capable of的被動語態的翻譯方法。
48. Mental health allows us to view others with sympathy if they are having troubles, with kindness if they are in pain, and with unconditional love no matter who they are.
【句子結構】該句主干是Mental health allows us to view others，三個并列with引導的介詞短語做狀語，前兩個with引導的狀語中各包含一個if引導的條件狀語從句，最后一個with狀語中包含一個no matter引導的讓步狀語從句。
49. Although mental health is the cure-all for living our lives, it is perfectly ordinary as you will see that it has been there to direct you through all your difficult decisions.
【句子結構】本題有一個由although引導的讓步狀語從句，as引導的原因狀語從句，以及that引導的賓語從句構成。此處“mental health”若是翻譯成心理健康與下文連接，則不符合中文表達習慣，又因mental本身與智力相關，所以將其翻譯成“健康的心智”；此外“perfectly ordinary”可以正譯，譯為“非常普遍”，本譯文采取正話反說的方式，譯為“并不稀奇”。“difficult decisions”若翻譯為“困難的決定”，不符合中文的表達方式，所以將decision，名詞譯為動詞“做決定”。
50. As you will come to see, knowing that mental health is always available and knowing to trust it allow us to slow down to the moment and live life happily.
Section III Writing
Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.
You should write neatly on the ANWSER SHEET.
Do not sign you own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming ” instead.
Do not write the address .(10 points)
August 20, 2015
To ensure students from overseas to be acquainted with the service of library in Beijing University, we write this notice to inform you of some relevant information about our library.
To begin with, our library provides a large amount of books and materials covering not only most majors and subjects, but also many extra-curricular reading materials, thus satisfying all your reading requirements. Furthermore, the library opens during the week time, each day from 9:00am to10:00pm. Last but not least, only students enrolled in this university and with a special Library Card are allowed to enter our library.
Anyone interested in studying or reading in our library should sign up before August 31, and the Library Card will be issued within a week.
Library of Beijing University
Suppose you are a librarian in your university. Write a notice of about 100 words, providing the newly-enrolled international students with relevant information about the library.
小作文，即A節作文的評分側重點在于：1. 格式和語域的恰當性；2. 信息點的覆蓋面；3. 內容的組織；4. 語言的準確性。
Write an essay of 160—200 words based on the following picture.in your essay, you should
1. describe the pictures briefly,
2. interpret its intended meaning, and
3. give your comments.
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET . (20 points)
What is symbolically depicted in the caricatures carries sharp contrast implications. In the first drawing, a father is watching a football match on the sofa. Meanwhile, he is supervising his son to finish homework. It is obvious that his son wears frowned expression on his face. On the contrary, the second portrayal depicts a father is working earnestly besides his son, and his son is doing his own assignment without prodding.
The drawer demonstrates that utmost significance should be attached to the phenomenon that setting proper examples has exerted great impact on the growth of the younger generation in China. Previously, it is widely acknowledged that parents are under obligation to help their kids form a set of appropriate values about the world and the life, which carries overwhelmingly precious connotation to the sound development on the younger generation. Simultaneously, there is no denying that the most rational method for adults to educate adolescents is to set them good examples rather than making perpetual requirements, which is less persuasive compared with the actions.
Accordingly, it is vital for us to derive positive implication from the drawings. On the one hand, we can frequently use them to enlighten parents to be more advisable in educating their children. On the other hand, parents should attach more emphasis on setting excellent models for their juveniles. Only in this way, can we effectively ensure a promising prospect for adolescents.
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